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41 unmanned systems inside December 2016/January 2017 The Evolution of Automotive Safety Technology Many of today's cars already feature some level of automation, whether it's single function anti-lock braking systems (level 1) or a combination of mul- tiple functions that can be found in solutions like Tesla Auto Pilot (level 2), Basnayake said. There are also connectivity based convenience and safety applications such as Ford Sync and OnStar. These location-aware applications have a GNSS system and a GNSS receiver to bring in position and time, and typically integrate different sensors in the car. Applications include navigation, maintenance and emergency response functions. If the car crashes and an airbag triggers, for example, the car can potentially contact an emergency response team for help. While customers expect the car to be con- nected at all times and to achieve road level location awareness, there are limitations to this technology, including the fact it's cellular based. All of the safety systems are typically developed on a network of sensors and ECUs, or electronic control units, Basnayake said, and the idea is that each ECU can input information to the network that other ECUs can pick up and act upon. "The connectivity device is pretty much standard in modern day cars," he said. "That's the gateway to outside connectivity. This may be part of a telemat- ics system or it could be a separate thing." As more of these technologies are developed, such as V2X, they're typically adapted to existing systems as an add-on, Basnayake said, represent- ing one of the many challenges facing driverless cars. For safety critical systems, redesigning will be necessary. Take the antenna for instance. The size and shape of the antenna may need to be ad- justed for enhanced availability and reliability. A survey grade antenna just won't work on a driver- less car. The same goes for sensors. Some may need to be upgraded while some will be created specifi- cally for safety critical functions. "The industry expectation is changing and it needs to be changed. If you look at legacy systems, we were looking at the ability to say which road I'm on and I'm happy with around 5 meter level accura- cy. With lane level applications like lane guidance or OTA CAPABILITY Typically, the car design cycle is three to four years and the product service life is about eight years—which is much longer than a typical consumer device. This brings a lot of challenges, Basnayake said, and one way the industry is dealing with those challenges is through over-the-air upgrade capabilities (OTA). A lot more work needs to be done before this can be used for downloading maps, for example, especially when you consider cyber security and hacking threats. "Things have to be very carefully designed," he said. "OTA is critical but it has to be further improved to be useful for everything." THE PANELISTS Mathieu Joerger, assistant professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering, University of Arizona Chaminda Basnayake, principal engineer for V2 X systems, Renesas Electronics Jonathan Auld, director of safety critical systems, NovAtel Inc. WHAT ATTENDEES WANTED TO KNOW A few of the questions asked in the webinar Q&A: • How does the size and placement of antennas on current vehicles compare to what you need as a GNSS provider? • Is V2X a communication protocol or are there provisions to allow for ranging capabilities for vehicles as well? • What are your thoughts on the current status of standards in the automotive industry? Where do you see more standards coming from and when? • How do you see GNSS being one of the primary methods on absolute positioning in urban areas? • How important is absolute position information versus relative position information in these types of systems? • Is a vertical protection level necessary for automatic applications and if so why and when? TO HEAR THE RESPONSES TO THESE QUESTIONS AND OTHERS, WATCH THE WEBINAR: http://www.insidegnss. com/webinars