Inside Unmanned Systems

AUG-SEP 2017

Inside Unmanned Systems provides actionable business intelligence to decision-makers and influencers operating within the global UAS community. Features include analysis of key technologies, policy/regulatory developments and new product design.

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51 unmanned systems inside August/September 2017 "The technology excels in situations where physical and visual sensors such as cam- eras, RADAR and LiDAR have limita- tions. Accuracy matters; but even more important is the GNSS' ability to guaran- tee a speed or position to solve some safety critical cases." TODAY'S GNSS CAPABILITIES Standard precision GNSS has made con- siderable improvements in recent years delivering incredibly strong performance in challenging environments like cities. For instance, u-blox, a leader in the automotive space with over 15 years of experience in high volume products, is showing the way to superior GNSS navi- gation performance with its NEO-M8L GNSS 3D dead reckoning module. The module combines GNSS, inertial sensors and uses speed information from the ve- hicle to deliver continuous and accurate positioning. The NEO-M8L embeds the latest ad- vancements in multi-GNSS and sensor signal processing to offer superior perfor- mance regardless of GNSS signal quality or availability, including deep urban can- yon conditions and tunnels. The u-blox Automotive Dead Reckoning (ADR) so- lution has been extensively tested in real- world environments, including city drive tests in Detroit, Chicago, San Francisco, New York City, Shanghai, Frankfurt and Zurich with outstanding results. Figure 1 shows the u-blox ADR solution versus a competitor's ADR system dur- ing a drive test in the challenging urban environment of Chicago. Figure 2 shows the accuracy in the financial district of Frankfurt, Germany. In these very diffi- cult conditions, the module demonstrated a 95% position accuracy of 3m, height 4m and heading 1°. The NEO-M8L is compliant with V2X SAE US requirements required for V2X deployment (1.5m 68%, 2m 95% using SBAS). u-blox's complementary V2X sen- sors, such as the VERA-P1 modules, en- able 360° awareness. With regard to secu- rity vulnerabilities, notably jamming and spoofing, u-blox boasts a comprehensive security portfolio and keeps embedding new features into new generations. https://www.u-blox.com/ FUNCTIONAL SAFE TY/INTEGRITY While dead reckoning and other capa- bilities noted above are important, they are still not enough for autonomous driv- ing. Decimeter-level accuracy, functional safety, and integrity must be included. Integrity is delivered as a "protection lev- el," as shown in Figure 3. Integrity goes beyond the ISO 26262, the automotive-specif ic international standard that focuses on safety critical components. It's a comprehensive assess- ment of the entire system, placing a mea- sure of trust in GNSS and knowing when GNSS should NOT be used. To achieve these numbers, the GNSS system must embed a combination of core GNSS technologies. These include multi- constellation GNSS reception for large numbers of measurements and a multi- band signal reception for minimal conver- gence time as well as 3D automotive dead reckoning to smooth multipath effects and to maintain positioning in tunnels, park- ing facilities and other indoor settings. u-blox offers dual-band carrier phase po- sitioning along with wide area SSR correc- tions (broadcasted by both internet and satellite). This combination of technologies can cope with the level of interruptions to carrier phase lock and the multipath dis- tortion caused by bridges, signs, trees and buildings in such environments. A high-performance GNSS that meets the requirements stated above is required to enable automated driving. The highly automated vehicle may seem a long way off, but in reality, the safety critical com- ponents are under development and will be available soon. "We are very excited about the way for- ward," said Berny. "The driverless car is coming—the solutions are just on the ho- rizon and we are ready to be a part of it." FIGURE 1: u-blox dead reckoning system compared to competition in Chicago, Ill. FIGURE 3: Integrity is delivered as a "protection level" in autonomous driving. REPORTED POSITION FIGURE 2: u-blox dead reckoning system in fi nancial district of Frankfurt, Germany. True position is inside circle, with extremely high probability Competitor u-blox ADR 4.10

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