Inside Unmanned Systems

DEC 2017 - JAN 2018

Inside Unmanned Systems provides actionable business intelligence to decision-makers and influencers operating within the global UAS community. Features include analysis of key technologies, policy/regulatory developments and new product design.

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62 unmanned systems inside   December 2017/January 2018 safety for UAS operations across the EU Member States, while still allowing the industry to remain ag- ile to foster growth and innovation. Because most drones are already equipped with cameras or audio sen- sors matters of privacy, data protec- tion and security issues needed to be taken into consideration by EASA. In a digital world, digital solutions to arising problems with drones flying over sensitive areas need to be found. The NPA therefore not only defines technical requirements for drones, but also paves the way for operation- al requirements, such as geofencing systems or electronic identification. Furthermore, the proposal addresses pilots' qualifications and the duty to register their drone or themselves. Dividing operations into two main categories, an open category for opera- tion of light drones within Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) and less than 120 m above ground level (AGL) and a spe- cific category for operations exceeding those boundaries, is supposed to ad- dress operational risks adequately. A third, so-called certified category addresses high risk operations with large drones and will be subject to a different regulation. Whether the certified category will be relevant re- mains to be seen, as the scope of the specific category is already limitless. Since operations in the certified cat- egory require the certification of the UAS among other requirements for the pilot and operator, the only thinkable use case would be operations requir- ing such numerous mitigation mea- sures, that certification would be more efficient and would allow, in addition, coverage of more operations than the one described in the risk assessment necessary for the specific category. The proposal will provide certain flexibility to Member States by allow- ing them to create zones on their ter- ritory, where drone operations can be limited, prohibited or, in the interest of marked development, facilitated. Furthermore, operations of public authorities do not fall under the scope of the NPA, but remain subject to the competence of the Member States. Conformité Européene Besides the aviation regulation which holds few surprises to pilots and op- erators, the NPA also introduces market product legislation. The well- known CE (Conformité Européene) marking will be mandatory for the production of drones in the open category. According to the identifi- cation of the class of the drone (C0 to C4), which correspond with the subcategories in the open category, manufacturers need to comply with the requirements for functionalities, such as geofencing systems and elec- tronic identification as well as weight limitations and maximum possible heights of operation. Compliance is shown, by affixing the CE mark- ing and the UAS class on the prod- uct. Also, all new drones will have to be delivered with a Dos and Don'ts leaf let. Based on the drone class, the operator should be able to determine where the UAS can be operated and what qualification is needed. As noted, in addition to the C0 to C4 drone classes, UAS are grouped into either the open category with three subcategories (A1 to A3) or the specific category based on the risk of operation. Boundaries for the open category are a MTOM of less than 25 kg, operation below 120 m height and operation within VLOS. When looking at these limitation values, the correlation between the open cat- egory and the drone classes becomes apparent. In case the intended opera- tion exceeds one of the limits set for the open category, it automatically falls into the specific category. The open categor y introduces a combination of limitations, op- erational rules, requirements for the competence of the operator as well as technical requirements for the UAS to mitigate the operational risk. One of the most important steps, to ensure a high level of safety is for operators to register themselves as well as their UAS with the competent authority de- signed for that purpose by the Member State. For effective law enforcement purposes as well as traffic manage- ment registration will be compulsory for any operation. Only light drones with a MTOM of less than 250 g will be exempted from the registration duty. Furthermore, operations with an FURTHERMORE, PILOTS AND OPERATORS MUST NOT ONLY ADHERE TO THE INDIVIDUAL CATEGORIES AND THEIR REQUIREMENTS, BUT ALSO TO CERTAIN ZONES ESTABLISHED BY THE MEMBER STATES. UAS Legislation by Oliver Heinrich

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