Inside Unmanned Systems

AUG-SEP 2018

Inside Unmanned Systems provides actionable business intelligence to decision-makers and influencers operating within the global UAS community. Features include analysis of key technologies, policy/regulatory developments and new product design.

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77 August/September 2018 unmanned systems inside JARUS is the Joint Authorities for Rulemaking on Unmanned Systems, a group of experts from national aviation authorities and regional aviation safety organizations around the world. Together, they are working toward a single set of technical, safety and operational requirements for the certi- fication and safe deployment of drones. "By following a global process, we facilitate the work for our operators and our businesses," de Vos said. "This is, after all, a global tech- nology, and we want to open up not only the European market but also look to opportunities in the global market." Safety, security, and privacy are all of utmost importance to maintaining societal acceptance of drones, he said. "Without the trust of citizens, the drone services market could easily backfire. "The new basic rule is an enormous piece of regulatory instrument in place," he said, "allow- ing us to start further elaborating our drone regulatory framework. This then provides us with a legal basis to adopt, by the end of the year, the UAS regulation." Just to be clear, if and when the UAS regula- tion is 'adopted' by the EU, that won't exactly be the end of the process. Readers will remember the remarks made earlier this year in Munich by Dominic Hayes, European Commission manager of spectrum and policy for Galileo and EGNOS. He told us, speaking about the UAS regulation, "The draft I've seen seems quite ad- vanced, and I expect it to be in place this year. That means that it's then up to the [EU] member states to implement it. But I do think this is one that they would want to implement." Also earlier this year, in Nuremberg, we spoke to Julia Gonschorek, who is a project manager and research fellow at Germany's inf luential European Aviation Security Center (EASC). She said, "As far as I know the [EU UAS] regu- lation will come. But we are not so sure about when exactly it would start in Germany. Not before 2025-2030, in any case, because even if the Union accepts it, passes it, then Germany still has to decide for itself." OPENING THE FLOODGATES The detailed rules for drones are already largely mapped out. During the long months when the EU Parliament and Council were negotiating adoption of the basic aviation regulation, EASA and the European Commission, in consultation with member states and other stakeholders, con- tinued to refine and clarify their ideas in relation to the eventual detailed UAS regulation. As many readers will be aware, EASA 'Opinions' on the subject have already been re- leased, laying out, for example, the 'concept of operations', wherein drone rules are to be 'oper- ations-centric', focusing on how a drone is to be used rather than on its physical configuration. The current EASA/EC proposal establishes three categories of operation: 'open' (low risk), 'specific' (medium risk) and 'certified' (high- er risk), with different safety parameters for each. These include such things as how high a drone is allowed to f ly, over what kind of terrain or populations, the distance between drone and pilot and how near to restricted zones an unmanned aircraft may f ly. Brief ly, the 'open' category includes opera- tions where safety is ensured through com- pliance with operational limitations, mass and energy limitations, product safety re- quirements and a minimum set of operational rules. Aircraft should be equipped with a sys- tem limiting performance to acceptable values. Examples include toys or 'hobbyist' operations. In the 'specific' category, authorization by a national aviation authority (NAA) will be re- quired, possibly assisted by a qualified entity, following a risk assessment performed by the operator. Examples of such operations could in- clude broadcast media flying a drone in an urban environment. Finally, in the 'certified' category, requirements will be comparable to those for manned aviation, including oversight by NAAs. For the Commission one of the immediate concerns is to avoid seeing national authorities overwhelmed by authorization applications when the UAS regulation comes into force. "THE NATIONAL CERTIFICATION AUTHORITIES (NCAS) WILL BE CONFRONTED WITH A HUGE NUMBER OF REQUESTS TO FLY, TO OPERATE…WE DO NOT BELIEVE IT WILL BE POSSIBLE FOR THEM TO CONTINUE TO CHECK AND APPROVE EACH AND EVERY DRONE OPERATION." Koen de Vos, European Commission Admin

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